How to retain colour for top combining pea premiums

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A bright green sample inside and out is key to fetching large blue pea premiums and choosing the right variety can help growers retain the colour required for top returns.

There are two main premium outlets for large blue peas; the first is micronizing – where peas are processed and toasted giving better nutritional value in products such as animal feed.

The second is for the human consumption market, where they find their way into anything from tins of mushy peas to packets of split peas for use in soups and sauces.

“In recent seasons, the large blue has been perceived as the poorer relative of the marrowfat pea, with more attractive contracts tempting growers into planting marrowfat types each spring,” says Limagrain UK’s pulse product manager George Hunter.

“That trend is being reversed, however, with a glut of marrowfats trimming margins and a weaker sterling reopening export markets on the continent for large blues.”

Franek Smith of Dunns (Long Sutton) Ltd and president of the British Edible Pulses Association (BEPA), agrees but underlines the importance of quality of large blues in order to meet end-user requirements.

“From an industry perspective, quality on large blue (Green) peas is paramount. 2017 was a very difficult, protracted harvest for peas with constantly changing weather – ideal conditions to affect the quality of peas. “

“We have seen a range of values for large blues, anywhere from the most bleached being worth only animal feed, up to £170 ex-farm for canning. The best quality samples, which have been used for export or micronizing have reached as much as £235 ex farm – this is mainly due to the lack of availability. Growers should focus on quality of produce as (this year specifically) it has affected the price by as much as £65/t.”

George Hunter points out that whichever market the crop is destined for, the appearance of the final product is critical to maximising returns.

He adds that with current premiums £50-£90/t above the feed pea price, there is a big incentive to grow for micronizing or human consumption for much improved gross margins.

“Although some select on size, for most processors it is all about the colour of the pea and the first thing growers can do to ensure they get the right colour is to choose the right variety,” he explains.

Franek Smith agrees. “Certain varieties retain their colour much better than others and this is only proven in difficult years. Generally, for the micronizing industry, the greenest peas are used. They are steamed and rolled into flakes for inclusion in animal feed. No artificial colours are added, so colour is paramount as the customer buying the product expects to see a certain level of green.”

“Another important market for the best quality peas is for splitting; this is to produce green split peas. These are used in packets, for snacks and even into Europe for soups and casseroles – again, the customer expects all the peas to be green as it’s the name of the product.”

Colourful genetics

The large blue pea market has been dominated by a handful of varieties over recent years – namely Daytona, Campus and Prophet – but newer additions such as Kingfisher have genetic traits that aid all-important colour retention.

Added to the PGRO Recommended List in 2016, it not only has a good all-round agronomic package, but has an inherent ability to maintain its green colour if weather delays harvest, increasing the risk of colour bleaching.

Andrew Bourne of Kent-based seeds merchant T Denne & Sons says that its [Kingfisher’s] standing ability is also a major plus, as lodging can cause pea losses through pod shatter and lower pods being subjected to damp conditions, staining the peas inside.

“Kingfisher stood well in difficult conditions this year [harvest 2017]and caught the eye alongside other leading varieties.

“As it has good genetic colour retention to start with, and can be harvested in a timely fashion, it represents a good risk management tool for growers when selecting a large blue pea variety for 2018,” he adds.

Encouraging results

Yorkshire-based feed processor I’Ansons uses micronized large blue peas in its rations and the company’s grain buyer Howard Jackson selects largely on sample colour and to a lesser extent, size.

The firm trialled a small quantity of Kingfisher for its suitability alongside other varieties during 2017 and he says in difficult year, signs were encouraging for the variety.

“It yielded on par [with fully recommended variety]Campus and producing a well-coloured and bold sample. It’s certainly a variety that we will look out for again next year,” explains Mr Jackson.

He adds that the firm pay a healthy contract price for good quality large blues and advises growers to communicate with customers such as I’Ansons to seek contracts and be clear on market demands.

Harvest management to keep peas green

Correct harvest timing and storage can significantly improve colour retention in a large blue pea sample, according to Limagrain’s George Hunter.

The logistics of harvesting peas can be tricky, as they typically ripen as wheat harvest is in full swing, but Mr Hunter says growers should try and get straight into the peas with the combine at 18% moisture.

“It gets the crop in the barn while it still has good colour and allows controlled drying down to 15-16% in a way that maintains that colour.

“Where peas are left out in the field to dry, the risk of bleaching can negatively impact on any potential premiums,” says Mr Hunter.

For drying, he adds that ambient air should be blown through the crop to gently drop the moisture content and peas should be heaped at a maximum depth of 1m to avoid uneven drying, which can cause variability in colour and quality through the sample.

Checklist for securing large blue pea premiums

  • Select a variety with good inherent colour retention
  • Standing ability key to timely harvest and reduced risk of bleaching or staining
  • Harvest peas at 18% moisture when colour is optimal
  • Gently and evenly dry to 15-16% moisture with ambient air to minimise colour loss
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